Networking computers is combining several independent disciples of science and engineering such as telecommunications, computer science, information technology and/or computer engineering. The computers are connected with each other primarily by means of telecommunication. Telecommunication, in turn, can be run using computers and in both wired and wireless modes. To reach sophisticated technological precisions of devices, including computers, used in building efficient computer networks information technology and computer science have been a booster.
Chronology of evolution of Computer Networking
Even before nineteenth century AD, visual signs are thought to be used in networking. The communication between calculation machines used to be made by passing instructions manually. The development of current day computer networking can be traced back to middle of the past century. Chronologically, it can be described as follows:
September 1940 – Use of a teletype machine by George Stibitz to send instructions for a problem set from his Model at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire to his Complex Number Calculator in New York and receiving return results.
August 1962 – Computer scientist J.C.R. Licklider of Bolt, Beranek and Newman Company formulated and published the concept of linking output systems like teletypes to computers to built “Intergalactic Computer Network”.
October 1963 – The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) hired J.C.R. Licklider to design and develop the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) in interest of United States Department of Defense for sharing resources and information.
1964 – Researchers developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for discrete computer systems at Dartmouth. In the same year, a group of researchers at MIT succeeded to route and manage telephone using computers. This project was supported by General Electric and Bell Labs.
1965 – Lawrence G. Roberts and Thomas Merrill succeeded in creating the first wide area network (WAN). In the same year, the very first widely used PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) switch was introduced by Western Electric. It was important as it used true computer control for networking for the first time in history.
November 1969 – The first permanent ARPANET link was established on between the Interface Messaging Processor (IMP) at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and the IMP at the Stanford Research Institute.
December 1969 – The entire four-node network with University of California, Santa Barbara, UCLA, Stanford Research Institute and University of Utah’s Computer Science Department on respective nodes was connected.
1972 – Commercial services using X.25 were deployed in, and later used as an underlying infrastructure for expanding Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol networks.
1989 – World Wide Web was invented by Timothy Berners-Lee at the European Laboratory of Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland.
The continuous effort to connect through computer networks and also communicating between them, the technologies has been evolving through augmentation of computer hardware, software, and peripherals industries. As a consequence, the scope of communication has developed manifold. Such development would have been impossible without advancements in computer network.